Sunday, December 27, 2009


Cooking is the process of preparing food by applying heat. Cooks select and combine ingredients using a wide range of tools and methods. In the process, the flavor, texture, appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients can change. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions.

Method of cooking

1) Roasting;
It is the method of cooking food with the help of fat and heat is known as roasting. There are 3 types of roasting. They are;
a) Spit roasting:
The food to be is brought in direct contact with the flame of a clear bright fire. E.g barbecued chicken, pork chops and steaks.
b) Oven roasting
This is a method of roasting a joint in a closed oven with the help of fat. The joint can be cooked on the bed of a mirepox which imparts flavour to the food and retains its juiciness.
c) Pot roasting:
This method is used to cook small joint in heavy thick pans if the oven is not available. The pan is then covered tightly with a well fitting lid and cooked over a very slow fire.
2) Baking:
The food is cooked by the action of dry heat is modified by the steam which arises from the food whilst cooking. Bread, cakes, pastry, vegetables and potatoes may be cooked by this method.

3) Frying:
This is a method of cooking whereby the cooking food to be cooked is brought into contact with hot fat. There are two types of frying. They are:
a) Shallow frying;
This method is applied to pre-cooked foods which take a very little time to be fully cooked.E.g omlets, liver etc.
b) Deep frying:
The food is completely immersed in hot fat and therefore, a large quantity of fat is required. Deep frying has a special significance in nepalese homes, as it is done for special occasions and ceremonies only.

3) Boiling:
Food is cooked by surrounding by it with boiling or simmering liquid. If well flavour stock is required, vegetables and meat should be put into cold water and always to cook gently. Salted or pickled meats should always be started in cold water.

4) Poaching:
Poaching is cooking slowly in a minimum account of liquid, which should never be allowed to boil but should be just off boil. Fish, fruits and eggs are cooked in this method.

5) Steaming:
The food to be cooked is surrounded by planty of steam from fast boiling water directly or by having the food in a basin or other dish placed in system or boiling water. This is the slow process of cooking and only easily cooked food can be prepared by this method.

6) Stewing:
This is very gentle method of cooking in a closed pan using only a small quantity of liquid. The food should never be more than half covered with the liquid and the food above this level is cooked by steam.

7) Braising:
This is a combined method of rosting and stewing in a pan with a tight fitting lid. Stock or greavy is added which should come to two-third of hte meat to be braised.

8) Grilling:
The food to be grilled is supported on the iron grids over the fire, or on a gird placed in a tin under a gas or electric grill, or between electrically heated grill bars. There are three types of grilling. They are:
a) Grilling over heat
b) Grilling under heat
c) Grilling between heat

Saturday, December 26, 2009


A kitchen is a well designed closed area with skillful chefs and all necessary equipments tools and utensilsliable for preparing food items as per guest orders followed by standard recipes.

The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the
cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying water to private homes. Until the 18th century, food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries, changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs.

Types of kitchen
The career of the kitchen personnel is interdependent with the type of the kitchen they are working with. Types of kitchen largely depend upon:
  • Customers,
  • Location of the establishment

  • Size of the establishment,

  • Choice on the men,

  • Type and volume of the business,

  • Type of service
Following are few of the common types if kiychen practiced in most of the catering industry.

Conventional kitchens
Production and finishing of food items takes place in the same area.

Production is done in one kitchen and finishing is done seperately thought the kitchen is combined.

Central kitchens
A kitchen with varied cuisine and serves many outlets at a time. Generally, central kitchen is operate round the clock.

Fast food kitchens
They are installed so as to obtain efficient production, using convenience foods or pre-cooked foods in a low price range. Staffs are usually part time workers. Everything is geared towards a high turnover of customers who are not very fussy.

Show kitchens
In this type of kitchen, the fod is prepared in full view of the customers. Hygiene, sanitation and skilled work methods are required to draw the guest's attention.

Experimential kitchens
These are research and development based kitchens found in food manufactures for study, conversation and improvement of the products.

Friday, December 25, 2009


Housekeeping or housecleaning is the systematic process of making a home neat a

nd clean in approximately that order. This maybe applied more

broadly that just an individual home, or as a metaphor for a similar "clean up" process applied elsewhere such as a procedural reform. It can also be called household management, which is the act of overseeing the organizational, financial, day-to-day operations of a house or estate, and the managing of other domestic concerns. Housekeeping me

ans upkeeping. It is the department in a hotel which is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance of guest floor and rooms, as well as the overall neatness of the enter hotel.

In the process of housekeeping general cleaning activities are completed, such as disposing of rubbish, storing of belongings in regular places, cleaning dirty surfaces, dusting and vacuuming. It is also the care and control of property, ensuring its maintenance and proper use and appearance. In a hotel, "housekeeping" is also a term for the cleani

personnel.Some housekeeping is housecleaning and some housekeeping is home

chores. Home chores are housework that needs to be done at regular intervals,[2] Housekeeping includes the budget and control of expenditures, preparing meals and buying food, paying the heat bill, and cleaning the house.[3] Outdoor housecleaning chores include removing leaves from rain gutters, washing windows, sweeping doormats, cleaning the pool, putting away lawn furniture, and taking out the trash.[4]

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Evolution of Hotel

The evolution of Hotel industry was influenced by the concept of small lodge-house. These refersto the graduall development of the hotel industry from the past to present and perhaps, it will continue in the future too.
The development of the hotel industries can be divided into three phases;
1) Period of evolution before the primitive age;
It is beliefed that inns were originated in 16th century B.C but the real begining of inn in the historygoes back to 12th century.The original inn kepper guild was formed in Florance in 1282A.D. German and English literature in the 13th and 14th century make frequent reference to the inn.Inn keeping was changed into commercial enterprises providing room, food and entertainment for the travellers. And by the 16th century, the concept of hospitality was developed.The real begining of the sami-modern lodging industries may be traed back to 1640A.D.To accomodate the English which sailed daily accross new England and Verginia.
2)Period after the advent of the industrial revolution;
After the industrial revolution in the Europe after 17th century which brought new ideas and progress in the hospitality industries.The business of hotel was closely influened by the development of railways and steam ships in between 1820's to 1830, which made travelling more prominent.The first modern city hotel was opened in the seaport in the NewYork, in 1794A.D consequently inumerous resorts were built in NewYork last skill mountain and jerseys Atlantic costal by 1824A.D.
3) Period after the development of the road and air transport;
In 1950's a road side Motel business was begin in california which was the site of the 1st motel reolution.After World WarII, the expantion of cities all over the world further development in travel and Hote industries. Air travellers encouraged a distinct type of hotel growth in 1950's through 1970's.The business travellers demanded specialized accomodation including meeting and conventional facilities.