Sunday, December 27, 2009
Saturday, December 26, 2009
The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying water to private homes. Until the 18th century, food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries, changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs.
Types of kitchen
The career of the kitchen personnel is interdependent with the type of the kitchen they are working with. Types of kitchen largely depend upon:
- Location of the establishment
- Size of the establishment,
- Choice on the men,
- Type and volume of the business,
- Type of service
Production and finishing of food items takes place in the same area.
A kitchen with varied cuisine and serves many outlets at a time. Generally, central kitchen is operate round the clock.
Fast food kitchens
They are installed so as to obtain efficient production, using convenience foods or pre-cooked foods in a low price range. Staffs are usually part time workers. Everything is geared towards a high turnover of customers who are not very fussy.
In this type of kitchen, the fod is prepared in full view of the customers. Hygiene, sanitation and skilled work methods are required to draw the guest's attention.
These are research and development based kitchens found in food manufactures for study, conversation and improvement of the products.
Friday, December 25, 2009
In the process of housekeeping general cleaning activities are completed, such as disposing of rubbish, storing of belongings in regular places, cleaning dirty surfaces, dusting and vacuuming. It is also the care and control of property, ensuring its maintenance and proper use and appearance. In a hotel, "housekeeping" is also a term for the cleani
personnel.Some housekeeping is housecleaning and some housekeeping is home Housekeeping includes the budget and control of expenditures, preparing meals and buying food, paying the heat bill, and cleaning the house. Outdoor housecleaning chores include removing leaves from rain gutters, washing windows, sweeping doormats, cleaning the pool, putting away lawn furniture, and taking out the trash.
Wednesday, December 23, 2009
The development of the hotel industries can be divided into three phases;
1) Period of evolution before the primitive age;
It is beliefed that inns were originated in 16th century B.C but the real begining of inn in the historygoes back to 12th century.The original inn kepper guild was formed in Florance in 1282A.D. German and English literature in the 13th and 14th century make frequent reference to the inn.Inn keeping was changed into commercial enterprises providing room, food and entertainment for the travellers. And by the 16th century, the concept of hospitality was developed.The real begining of the sami-modern lodging industries may be traed back to 1640A.D.To accomodate the English which sailed daily accross new England and Verginia.
2)Period after the advent of the industrial revolution;
After the industrial revolution in the Europe after 17th century which brought new ideas and progress in the hospitality industries.The business of hotel was closely influened by the development of railways and steam ships in between 1820's to 1830, which made travelling more prominent.The first modern city hotel was opened in the seaport in the NewYork, in 1794A.D consequently inumerous resorts were built in NewYork last skill mountain and jerseys Atlantic costal by 1824A.D.
3) Period after the development of the road and air transport;
In 1950's a road side Motel business was begin in california which was the site of the 1st motel reolution.After World WarII, the expantion of cities all over the world further development in travel and Hote industries. Air travellers encouraged a distinct type of hotel growth in 1950's through 1970's.The business travellers demanded specialized accomodation including meeting and conventional facilities.
Tuesday, November 24, 2009
Alcoholic strength is the ethanol (the main product of fermentation) in wine. It is measured in percentage as opposed to proof, which is how alcohol is measured in hard liquor. In the U.S., if the wine is designated as a “Table Wine” on the label, it must have less than 14% alcohol by volume. The law also permits a 1.5% leeway. If a label says 12.5% alcohol by volume, it can actually be as high as 14% or as low at 11%. In the U.S., if a label simply says “Table Wine” then the alcohol content is between 11% and 14%. In Europe the variance is between 8.5% and 14%.
The breakdown, approximately is:
Table wine: 8 – 14%
Sparkling wine: 8 – 12%
Fortified wine: 17 – 22%
Fortified wine is wine that has been strengthened with the addition of alcohol. Wines that fall into that category are dessert wines, Sherry or Port. Alcohol has a huge effect on how a wine tastes and feels in the mouth. In table wine, i.e. wine that has gotten its alcohol content from the fermentation of grapes alone, alcohol contributes a sweetness.
It can also be perceived as bitter, especially in a white wine with little flavor and high alcohol. In the mouth, it has a warm feeling. Too much alcohol, and it can have a hot feeling. It adds thickness to the wine. When someone refers to the “legs” in a glass of wine, which is the residue of wine running back into the body of wine after tilting the glass, this is partially determined by the alcohol content of the wine. Swirl some wine in a glass and watch it settle. Look at its legs. Legs are a desirable thing in wine.
And last but not least, the alcohol content in wine can greatly affect the drinker. Having a glass of wine at lunch can greatly affect the rest of your day. Try a wine with 11% alcohol content one day. The next day try one with 14% and feel the difference. In Europe the quaffing of bottles of Chianti or Vin de pays at lunch is not generally of the 14% variety, but of the 11% and lighter variety, which is why they can go back to work after lunch…sometimes.
Bed-making is an important part of home nursing for anyone who is confined to bed for some time. A badly-made bed is uncomfortable, and can lead to pressure sores in the bedridden.
1. Remove all pillows except one.
Part-time work is more common among food and beverage serving and related workers than among workers in almost any other occupation. In 2006, those on part-time schedules included half of all waiters and waitresses and 39 percent of all bartenders.
Food service and drinking establishments typically maintain long dining hours and offer flexible and varied work opportunities. Many food and beverage serving and related workers work evenings, weekends, and holidays. Many students and teenagers seek part time or seasonal work as food and beverage serving and related workers as a first job to gain work experience or to earn spending money. More than one-fifth of all food and beverage serving and related workers were 16 to 19 years old—about five times the proportion for all workers. work as part of a team, helping coworkers to improve workflow and customer service
Tourism is the largest industry in Nepal; the largest source of foreign exchange and revenue. Possessing 8 of the 10 highest Nepal:Surrounded by the lofty heights of the Himalayas, Nepal is a land of eternal beauty and attraction. It's a land of colorful cultures, ancient history and people, picturesque scenery and some of the best walking on earth. It is popularly known for the highest mountain peak of the world, Mount Everest which stands tall at 8848 metres.
Nepal tourism informs about places to visit in Nepal, famous for the birthplace of Gautam Buddha who laid the foundation of Buddhism in the country. Come and explore Nepal having rich traditions of art, culture and heritage. Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal is a treasure house of ancient art and culturemountains in the world, Nepal is a hotspot destination for mountaineers, rock climbers and people seeking adventures. The Hindu and Buddhist heritage of Nepal, and its cold weather are also strong attractions.
Sunday, November 22, 2009
The hotel industry is perhaps one of the oldest commercial endeavours in the world. The lead in hotelkeeping was taken by the emerging nations of Europe, especially Switzerland. It was in Europe that the birth of an organized hotel industry took place in the space of chalete and small hotels which provided a variety of services and were mainly patronished by the aristocracy of the day.
The real growth of the modern hotel industry took place in the USA begining with the opening of City Hotel in New York in 1794. This was the first building specifically erected for hotel purposes. Hence a hotel must provide food and lodging to travellers, on payment and has, in turn the right to refuse if the traveller is drunk, disorderly, unkempt or is not in a position to pay for the services. The development of hotel industry was influenced by the concept of small lodge-house which can developed the hotel industry from the past to present and perhaps, it will continue in the future too.