Sunday, December 27, 2009


Cooking is the process of preparing food by applying heat. Cooks select and combine ingredients using a wide range of tools and methods. In the process, the flavor, texture, appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients can change. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions.

Method of cooking

1) Roasting;
It is the method of cooking food with the help of fat and heat is known as roasting. There are 3 types of roasting. They are;
a) Spit roasting:
The food to be is brought in direct contact with the flame of a clear bright fire. E.g barbecued chicken, pork chops and steaks.
b) Oven roasting
This is a method of roasting a joint in a closed oven with the help of fat. The joint can be cooked on the bed of a mirepox which imparts flavour to the food and retains its juiciness.
c) Pot roasting:
This method is used to cook small joint in heavy thick pans if the oven is not available. The pan is then covered tightly with a well fitting lid and cooked over a very slow fire.
2) Baking:
The food is cooked by the action of dry heat is modified by the steam which arises from the food whilst cooking. Bread, cakes, pastry, vegetables and potatoes may be cooked by this method.

3) Frying:
This is a method of cooking whereby the cooking food to be cooked is brought into contact with hot fat. There are two types of frying. They are:
a) Shallow frying;
This method is applied to pre-cooked foods which take a very little time to be fully cooked.E.g omlets, liver etc.
b) Deep frying:
The food is completely immersed in hot fat and therefore, a large quantity of fat is required. Deep frying has a special significance in nepalese homes, as it is done for special occasions and ceremonies only.

3) Boiling:
Food is cooked by surrounding by it with boiling or simmering liquid. If well flavour stock is required, vegetables and meat should be put into cold water and always to cook gently. Salted or pickled meats should always be started in cold water.

4) Poaching:
Poaching is cooking slowly in a minimum account of liquid, which should never be allowed to boil but should be just off boil. Fish, fruits and eggs are cooked in this method.

5) Steaming:
The food to be cooked is surrounded by planty of steam from fast boiling water directly or by having the food in a basin or other dish placed in system or boiling water. This is the slow process of cooking and only easily cooked food can be prepared by this method.

6) Stewing:
This is very gentle method of cooking in a closed pan using only a small quantity of liquid. The food should never be more than half covered with the liquid and the food above this level is cooked by steam.

7) Braising:
This is a combined method of rosting and stewing in a pan with a tight fitting lid. Stock or greavy is added which should come to two-third of hte meat to be braised.

8) Grilling:
The food to be grilled is supported on the iron grids over the fire, or on a gird placed in a tin under a gas or electric grill, or between electrically heated grill bars. There are three types of grilling. They are:
a) Grilling over heat
b) Grilling under heat
c) Grilling between heat

Saturday, December 26, 2009


A kitchen is a well designed closed area with skillful chefs and all necessary equipments tools and utensilsliable for preparing food items as per guest orders followed by standard recipes.

The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the
cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying water to private homes. Until the 18th century, food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries, changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs.

Types of kitchen
The career of the kitchen personnel is interdependent with the type of the kitchen they are working with. Types of kitchen largely depend upon:
  • Customers,
  • Location of the establishment

  • Size of the establishment,

  • Choice on the men,

  • Type and volume of the business,

  • Type of service
Following are few of the common types if kiychen practiced in most of the catering industry.

Conventional kitchens
Production and finishing of food items takes place in the same area.

Production is done in one kitchen and finishing is done seperately thought the kitchen is combined.

Central kitchens
A kitchen with varied cuisine and serves many outlets at a time. Generally, central kitchen is operate round the clock.

Fast food kitchens
They are installed so as to obtain efficient production, using convenience foods or pre-cooked foods in a low price range. Staffs are usually part time workers. Everything is geared towards a high turnover of customers who are not very fussy.

Show kitchens
In this type of kitchen, the fod is prepared in full view of the customers. Hygiene, sanitation and skilled work methods are required to draw the guest's attention.

Experimential kitchens
These are research and development based kitchens found in food manufactures for study, conversation and improvement of the products.

Friday, December 25, 2009


Housekeeping or housecleaning is the systematic process of making a home neat a

nd clean in approximately that order. This maybe applied more

broadly that just an individual home, or as a metaphor for a similar "clean up" process applied elsewhere such as a procedural reform. It can also be called household management, which is the act of overseeing the organizational, financial, day-to-day operations of a house or estate, and the managing of other domestic concerns. Housekeeping me

ans upkeeping. It is the department in a hotel which is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance of guest floor and rooms, as well as the overall neatness of the enter hotel.

In the process of housekeeping general cleaning activities are completed, such as disposing of rubbish, storing of belongings in regular places, cleaning dirty surfaces, dusting and vacuuming. It is also the care and control of property, ensuring its maintenance and proper use and appearance. In a hotel, "housekeeping" is also a term for the cleani

personnel.Some housekeeping is housecleaning and some housekeeping is home

chores. Home chores are housework that needs to be done at regular intervals,[2] Housekeeping includes the budget and control of expenditures, preparing meals and buying food, paying the heat bill, and cleaning the house.[3] Outdoor housecleaning chores include removing leaves from rain gutters, washing windows, sweeping doormats, cleaning the pool, putting away lawn furniture, and taking out the trash.[4]

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Evolution of Hotel

The evolution of Hotel industry was influenced by the concept of small lodge-house. These refersto the graduall development of the hotel industry from the past to present and perhaps, it will continue in the future too.
The development of the hotel industries can be divided into three phases;
1) Period of evolution before the primitive age;
It is beliefed that inns were originated in 16th century B.C but the real begining of inn in the historygoes back to 12th century.The original inn kepper guild was formed in Florance in 1282A.D. German and English literature in the 13th and 14th century make frequent reference to the inn.Inn keeping was changed into commercial enterprises providing room, food and entertainment for the travellers. And by the 16th century, the concept of hospitality was developed.The real begining of the sami-modern lodging industries may be traed back to 1640A.D.To accomodate the English which sailed daily accross new England and Verginia.
2)Period after the advent of the industrial revolution;
After the industrial revolution in the Europe after 17th century which brought new ideas and progress in the hospitality industries.The business of hotel was closely influened by the development of railways and steam ships in between 1820's to 1830, which made travelling more prominent.The first modern city hotel was opened in the seaport in the NewYork, in 1794A.D consequently inumerous resorts were built in NewYork last skill mountain and jerseys Atlantic costal by 1824A.D.
3) Period after the development of the road and air transport;
In 1950's a road side Motel business was begin in california which was the site of the 1st motel reolution.After World WarII, the expantion of cities all over the world further development in travel and Hote industries. Air travellers encouraged a distinct type of hotel growth in 1950's through 1970's.The business travellers demanded specialized accomodation including meeting and conventional facilities.

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Alcohol in wine

Alcohol in wine is as important an element in the final product as the grape itself. It doesn’t just effect how you feel after drinking it. It effects the taste, texture, and structure of the wine itself.
Alcoholic strength is the ethanol (the main product of fermentation) in wine. It is measured in percentage as opposed to proof, which is how alcohol is measured in hard liquor. In the U.S., if the wine is designated as a “Table Wine” on the label, it must have less than 14% alcohol by volume. The law also permits a 1.5% leeway. If a label says 12.5% alcohol by volume, it can actually be as high as 14% or as low at 11%. In the U.S., if a label simply says “Table Wine” then the alcohol content is between 11% and 14%. In Europe the variance is between 8.5% and 14%.

These numbers were arrived at because most grapes after fermentation come in somewhere between 8% in alcohol by volume on the low end, and 14% on the high end. But, that was some time ago. Today wines can come in much higher, especially in hot climates like Australia. And, with new viticulture techniques, and greater controls in the winemaking process, it is not unusual to see wine over 15% in alcohol. There are some Zinfandels and Syrahs, the heavy hitter grapes, that can go up to 16.5 in alcohol by volume, which is huge. Obviously, the “Table Wine” designation is not on their label.

The breakdown, approximately is:
Table wine: 8 – 14%
Sparkling wine: 8 – 12%
Fortified wine: 17 – 22%

Fortified wine is wine that has been strengthened with the addition of alcohol. Wines that fall into that category are dessert wines, Sherry or Port. Alcohol has a huge effect on how a wine tastes and feels in the mouth. In table wine, i.e. wine that has gotten its alcohol content from the fermentation of grapes alone, alcohol contributes a sweetness.
It can also be perceived as bitter, especially in a white wine with little flavor and high alcohol. In the mouth, it has a warm feeling. Too much alcohol, and it can have a hot feeling. It adds thickness to the wine. When someone refers to the “legs” in a glass of wine, which is the residue of wine running back into the body of wine after tilting the glass, this is partially determined by the alcohol content of the wine. Swirl some wine in a glass and watch it settle. Look at its legs. Legs are a desirable thing in wine.
And last but not least, the alcohol content in wine can greatly affect the drinker. Having a glass of wine at lunch can greatly affect the rest of your day. Try a wine with 11% alcohol content one day. The next day try one with 14% and feel the difference. In Europe the quaffing of bottles of Chianti or Vin de pays at lunch is not generally of the 14% variety, but of the 11% and lighter variety, which is why they can go back to work after lunch…sometimes.

Bed making Process

Bed-making is an important part of home nursing for anyone who is confined to bed for some time. A badly-made bed is uncomfortable, and can lead to
pressure sores in the bedridden.
Making an occupied bed:
The trick to making an occupied bed is to make half the bed first, then the other half. Fold clean sheets lengthways to form a crease down the centre, to make centering easy. If there is more than one sheet, remove each one separately. Here is how it is done.
1. Remove all pillows except one.
2. Cross the person's arms and legs in readiness for turning.
3. Move the remaining pillow to the far side of the bed. Turn the

person to his side, with head on the pillow.
4. Roll the dirty sheet to the centre of the bed up against the person's back. Smooth the near half of the mattress cover.
5. Place the clean sheet half rolled up lengthways, against the roll of dirty sheet. Tuck in the two free corners of the clean sheet.
6. Turn the person over the rolls of sheets to lie on his side facing you. Move the pillow over.
7. Go round to the other side of the bed, and pull through and remove the dirty sheet. Smooth the other half of the mattress cover.
8. Unroll the clean sheet and tuck in the remaining two corners. Pull it tight and wrinkle-free.
9. Turn the person onto his back.
10.Change the pillow cases, if necessary. Replace the pillows, and make the person comfortable. 11.Change the top sheet/blanket, if necessary. Tuck the top sheet / blanket loosely, or it may cause pressure sores on the toes or discomfortad to pressure sores in the bedridden.

Food & beverage

Food and beverage serving and related workers are the front line of customer service in restaurants, coffee shops, and other food service establishments. These workers greet customers, escort them to seats and hand them menus, take food and drink orders, and serve food and beverages. They also answer questions, explain menu items and specials, and keep tables and dining areas clean and set for new diners.
Work environment: Food and beverage service workers are on their feet most of the time and often carry heavy trays of food, dishes, and glassware. During busy dining periods, they are under pressure to serve customers quickly and efficiently. The work is relatively safe, but care must be taken to avoid slips, falls, and burns.
Part-time work is more common among food and beverage serving and
related workers than among workers in almost any other occupation. In 2006, those on part-time schedules included half of all waiters and waitresses and 39 percent of all bartenders.
Food service and drinking establishments typically maintain long dining hours and offer flexible and varied work opportunities. Many food and beverage serving and related workers work evenings, weekends, and holidays. Many students and teenagers seek part time or seasonal work as food and beverage serving and related workers as a first job to gain work experience or to earn spending money. More than one-fifth of all food and beverage serving and related workers were 16 to 19 years old—about five times the proportion for all workers. work as part of a team, helping coworkers to improve workflow and customer service